Hipersensitivitas Terhadap Vaksin

  • I Gede Yasa Asmara Bagian/SMF Ilmu Penyakit Dalam Fakultas Kedokteran UNRAM/RSUP NTB

Abstract

Vaksin mirip dengan obat yaitu dapat berpotensi menimbulkan reaksi hipersensitivitas baik ringan maupun berat. Proses pembuatan vaksin harus memperhatikan keseimbangan antara aspek imunogenisitas dan reaktigenisitas. Hampir semua komponen vaksin berpotensi menimbulkan reaksi hipersensitivitas namun mekanisme alergi hanya sebagian kecil dari seluruh efek samping vaksin. Reaksi hipersensitivitas terhadap vaksin ada dua jenis yaitu reaksi segera maupun reaksi lambat. Penegakan diagnosis reaksi hipersensitivitas terhadap vaksin mengutamakan anamnesis dan pemeriksaan fisik. Pemeriksaan tes alergi belum terstandar dan tervalidasi. Penanganan reaksi hipersensitivitas terhadap vaksin hampir sama dengan penanganan reaksi alergi secara umum. Keputusan pemberian re-vaksinasi sangat individual tergantung kondisi masing-masing pasien. 

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Published
2016-09-28
Section
Literature Review