The Neuroprotective Role of Cognitive Reserve Against Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus-associated Cognitive Impairment
Cognitive impairment is one of the important complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes mellitus-associated cognitive impairment has wide spectrum, ranging from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. The susceptibility of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to experiencing cognitive impairment is also determined by their previous cognitive reserve status. A good cognitive reserve of a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus will protect him from cognitive impairment. The components of cognitive reserve, including education, occupation, hobbies, and social and physical activities provide a protective effect through neural reserve and neural compensation mechanisms that lead to a serial processes of neurogenesis, production of neurotropic factors, and neurotransmitter regulation. An understanding of the neuroprotective effects of the components of cognitive reserve is very important in determining optimal cognitive impairment management strategies in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, in such a way that they are still able to carry out daily functional activities properly.
2. Umegaki H. Type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for cognitive impairment: current insights. Clin Interv Aging. 2014;9:1011–9.
3. Saedi E, Gheini MR, Faiz F, Arami MA. Diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairments. World J Diabetes. 2016;7(17):412–22.
4. Biessels GJ, Despa F. Cognitive decline and dementia in diabetes mellitus: mechanisms and clinical implications. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2018;14(10):591–604.
5. Li W, Sun L, Li G, Xiao S. Prevalence, Influence Factors and Cognitive Characteristics of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Front Aging Neurosci. 2019;11:180.
6. Teixeira MM, Passos VMA, Barreto SM, Schmidt MI, Duncan BB, Beleigoli AMR, et al. Association between diabetes and cognitive function at baseline in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA- Brasil). Sci Rep. 2020;10:1596.
7. Xia S-S, Xia W-L, Huang J-J, Zou H-J, Tao J, Yang Y. The factors contributing to cognitive dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients. Ann Transl Med. 2020;8(4):104.
8. Cheng S-T. Cognitive Reserve and the Prevention of Dementia: the Role of Physical and Cognitive Activities. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2016;18:85. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11920-016-0721-2
9. Darwish H, Farran N, Assaad S, Chaaya M. Cognitive Reserve Factors in a Developing Country: Education and Occupational Attainment Lower the Risk of Dementia in a Sample of Lebanese Older Adults. Front Aging Neurosci. 2018;10:277.
10. Pinto C, Tandel KY. Cognitive reserve: Concept , determinants , and promotion. J Geriatr Ment Heal. 2016;3:44–51.
11. Zhu X, Qiu C, Zeng Y, Li J. Leisure activities, education, and cognitive impairment in Chinese older adults: a population-based longitudinal study. Int P. 2017;29(5):727–39.
12. WHO. GLOBAL REPORT ON DIABETES. Geneva; 2016.
13. Zheng Y, Ley SH, Hu FB. Global aetiology and epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2018;14:88–98. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrendo.2017.151
14. Fan W. Epidemiology in diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Cardiovasc Endocrinol. 2017;6(1):8–16.
15. Verny C, Doucet J, Bauduceau B, Constans T, Mondon K, Le Floch JP. Prevalence of cognitive decline and associated factors in elderly type 2 diabetic patients at inclusion in the GERODIAB cohort. Eur Geriatr Med. 2015;6(1):36–40. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurger.2014.10.006
16. Lavielle P, Talavera JO, Reynoso N, González M, Gomez-Diaz RA, Cruz M, et al. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment in Recently Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Are Chronic Inflammatory Diseases Responsible for Cognitive Decline? PLoS One. 2015;10(10):e0141325.
17. Zilliox LA, Chadrasekaran K, Kwan JY, Russel JW. Diabetes and Cognitive Impairment. Curr Diab Rep. 2016;16(9):87. Available from: doi:10.1007/s11892-016-0775-x
18. Seto SW, Yang GY, Kiat H, Bensoussan A, Kwan YW, Chang D. Diabetes Mellitus, Cognitive Impairment, and Traditional Chinese Medicine. Int J Endocrinol. 2015;2015:810439.
19. Kim H-G. Cognitive dysfunctions in individuals with diabetes mellitus. Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2019;36(3):183–91. Available from: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2019.00255
20. Verma N, Despa F. Contributing Factors to Diabetic Brain Injury and Cognitive Decline. Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43:560–7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2019.00255
21. Burda JE, Sofroniew M V. Reactive gliosis and the multicellular response to CNS damage and disease. Neuron. 2014;81(2):229–48.
22. Tang BL. Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) and GABAergic Neurotransmission. Cells. 2019;8:550.
23. Stern Y. Cognitive Reserve: Implications for Assessment and Intervention. Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2013;65(2):49–54.
24. Steffener J, Stern Y. Exploring the neural basis of cognitive reserve in aging. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1822(3):467–73. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2011.09.012
25. Wang H-X, Xu W, Pei J-J. Leisure activities , cognition and dementia. BBA - Mol Basis Dis. 2012;1822:482–91. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2011.09.002
26. Peña-González P, Mondragón-Maya A, Silva-Pereyra J, Roa-Rojas P. Cognitive Reserve and Executive Functions in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes. J Diabetes Res. 2020;2020:7941543.
27. Vivar C, Potter MC, Praag H Van. All About Running: Synaptic Plasticity, Growth Factors and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2013;15:189–210.
Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Kedokteran
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.