Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH)

Keywords: stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracranial aneurysms×


Approximately, 10-20% of stroke cases in a year caused by a hemorrhagic strokes. The most dangerous and deadly of hemorrhagic stroke’s is subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). SAH have higher impact on economic, morbidity, and mortality than other types of stroke even though the prevalence is quite low. About 80% of non-trauma subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) cases are caused by rupture of intracranial aneurysm, which encourages blood to fill the subarachnoid space and stimulates the surrounding structures, it’s cause pathognomonic symptoms of stiff neck and thunderclap headache. Even though there are typical symptoms, misdiagnose of this stroke is still happens. Therefore, a comprehension of all aspects that are related to subarachnoid hemorrhage is very important in optimizing patient ability and service.


Keywords: stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracranial aneurysms



1. Patel A R., Patel A R., Desai S. The Underlying Stroke Etiology: A Comparison of Two Classifications in a Rural Setup. Cureus 2019;11(7):2-3 DOI : 10.7759/cureus.5157
2. Abbott, A. L., Silvestrini, M., Topakian, R., Golledge, J., Brunser, A. M., de Borst, et al. Optimizing the Definitions of Stroke, Transient Ischemic Attack, and Infarction for Research and Application in Clinical Practice. Front.Neurol. 2017;8:2-3 DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2017.00537
3. Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Hasil Utama Riskesdas 2018 [internet]. 2019, ?Cited 16 Oktober 2020?, Available from :
4. Unnithan A K, Mehta P. Hemorrhagic Stroke [Internet]. 2020 ?Cited 17 Oktober 2020?, Available from
5. Vivancos, J., Gilo F., Frutos R., Maestre J., Pastor G A., Quintana F. Clinical Management Guidelines for Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Diagnosis and Treatment. Neuroglia 2017;29(6):353-370 DOI: 10.1016/j.nrl.2012.07.009
6. Reis, C., Ho, W. M., Akyol, O., Chen, S., Applegate, R., Zhang, J. Pathophysiology of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Early Brain Injury, and Delayed Cerebral Ischemia. Primer on Cerebrovascular Diseases 2nd edition: Elsevier. 2017;125–130
7. Lawton, M. T., & Vates, G. E. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. N ENGL J MED 2017; 377(3):257–266. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMcp1605827
8. Marcolini, E., & Hine, J. Approach to the Diagnosis and Management of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. West J of Emerg Med 2019; 20(2):203–211 doi: 10.5811/westjem.2019.1.37352
9. De Oliveira Manoel, A. L., Goffi, A., Marotta, T. R., Schweizer, T. A., Abrahamson, S., Macdonald, R. L. The critical care management of poor-grade subarachnoid haemorrhage. Crit Care. 2016;20(21):1-14 DOI: 10.1186/s13054-016-1193-9
10. Perhimpunan Dokter Spesialis Saraf Indonesia. Panduan Praktik Klinis Neurologi [Internet]. 2016. ?Cited 16 Oktober 2020?. Available from :
11. Widiastuti P, Nuartha A.Sistem Skoring Diagnosis untuk Stroke: Skor Siriraj. CDK 2015; 42(10):776-777
12. Perhimpunan Dokter Spesialis Saraf Indonesia. Guideline Stroke Tahun 2011 [Internet]. 2011. ?Cited 17 Oktober 2020?. Available from :
13. Danière, F., Gascou, G., Champfleur, N., Machi, P., Leboucq, N., Riquelme, et al Complications and follow up of subarachnoid hemorrhages. Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging: Elsevier Masson SAS. 2015; 96(7–8):677–686
14. Chen, S., Luo, J., Reis, C., Manaenko, A., & Zhang, J. Hydrocephalus after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment. BioMed Research International. 2017:1–8
Literature Review