Manajemen Terkini Amnesia Pasca Cedera Otak

  • Lalu Wahyu Alfian Muharzami Universitas Mataram
Keywords: Amnesia, Cedera otak, Amnesia Pasca Cedera

Abstract

Cedera otak merupakan kerusakan jaringan otak mendadak yang disebabkan oleh proses traumatik dan tidak terdapat proses degeneratif maupun kongenital. Gangguan memori sering terjadi pasca cedera otak akibat adanya kerusakan struktur otak. Pada kondisi akut, pasien cedera otak sering mengalami amnesia pasca trauma. Amnesia pasca trauma merupakan kesulitan dalam mempelajari atau mengingat informasi baru maupun mengingat kejadian masa lalu yang terjadi setelah adanya cedera. Studi dilakukan dengan metode telaah literatur ilmiah dari berbagai situs seperti NCBI, Google Scholar, Google Search, Sciencedirect, dan researchgate dengan menggunakan kata kunci yang relevan seperti “post-traumatic amnesia”, “management of post-traumatic amnesia”, “therapy of post-traumatic amnesia”, “treatment of post-traumatic amnesia”. Setelah membaca judul dan abstrak, terdapat sebanyak 7 artikel penelitian yang sesuai dengan tujuan studi review ini. Berdasarkan 7 penelitian yang dianalisis, terdapat 4 terapi yang dapat diberikan kepada pasien cedera otak yang sedang dalam fase amnesia pasca trauma. Sebanyak 2 penelitian membahas tentang terapi latihan berdasarkan aktivitas sehari-hari, 2 penelitian membahas tentang terapi okupasi, terapi kognitif perilaku 1 penelitian, dan 2 penelitian membahas tentang pemberian terapi musik. Pada tahap akut perawatan terfokus pada kondisi vital pasien dan pencegahan terjadinya cedera sekunder. Perawatan pasien cedera otak yang mengalami amnesia pasca trauma diantaranya yaitu terapi okupasi dengan metode Activities of Daily Living (ADL), terapi okupasi dengan metode Perceive, Recall, Plan, and Perform (PRPP), terapi kognitif perilaku, dan terapi musik. Metode perawatan dapat dipilih berdasarkan kondisi pasien saat terapi, memungkinkan untuk diterapkan kepada pasien, dan terdapat sumber daya yang sesuai.

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Published
2021-12-18