THE EFFECT OF STIRRING SPEED ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SYZYGIUM CUMINI JUICE NANOPARTICLES

  • Wahida Hajrin
Keywords: Chitosan, nanoparticles, Stirring speed, Syzygium cumini.

Abstract

Background: Formulation of nanoparticles to solve stability and bioavailability issue have limitation in achieving the good characteristics. The aim of this study was to find out the effect of the stirring speed on the characteristics of Syzygium cumini juice nanoparticles.

Methods: Nanoparticles formulated by chitosan as polimer, Syzygium cumini fruit juice extract, and Sodium TPP as crosslinker then it stirred with stirring speed variation of 500, 1000, and 1500 rpm. The observed parameters were transmittance, entrapment efficiency, particle size and PdI, also zeta potensial.

Results: The highest transmittance was 84,700±0,430 % obtained at 500 rpm (p-value=0,108), the highest entrapment efficiency was 74,014±1,404 % obtained at 1000 rpm (p-value=0,501), the smallest particles size was 56,9±0,9 nm obtained at 1500 rpm (p-value=0,000), and the higher zeta potensial was 37,7±2,8 mV obtained at 1000 rpm (p-value=0,054).

Conclusion: the stirring speed has no effect on transmittance, entrapment efficiency, and zeta potential but does affect the particle size of the Syzygium cumini juice nanoparticles.

References

1. Nair, K. The Genus Syzygium (Syzygium Cumini and Other Undurutilized Species). New York: Taylor and Francis Group. 2017.
2. Ayyanar, M. dan Babu, P., Syzygiun cumini (L.) A Review of its Phytochemical Constituents and Traditional Uses. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2012; 2(3): 240–246.
3. Banerjee, A., Dasgupta, N. dan De, B. In Vitro Study Of Antioxidant Activity of syzigium Cumini Fruit. Journal Food Chemistry. 2005; 90(1): 727–733.
4. Ferry, S., Manurung, I., Manuntun dan Puspawati. Efektifitas Antosianin Kulit Buah Jamblang (Syzygium Cumini) sebagai Penurun Low Density Lipoprotein Darah. CK. 2015; 3(12):1–16 (2015).
5. Tiyaboonchai, W. Chitosan Nanoparticles?: a Promising System for Drug Delivery. Naresuan University Journal. 2003; 11(1): 51–66.
6. Ningsih, N., Sedarnawati, Y. dan Sri, Y. Sintesis Nanopartikel Ekstrak Kulit Manggis Merah dan Kajian Sifat Fungsional Produk Enkapsulasinya. JurnalTeknologi dan Industri Pangan. 2017; 28(1):27–35.
7. Hajrin, W., Budastra, W.C.G., Juliantoni, Y. dan Subaidah, W. A. Formulasi dan karakterisasi nanopartikel kitosan ekstrak sari buah juwet (Syzygium cumini) menggunakan metode gelasi ionik. Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan. 2021; 3(5):742–749.
8. Racovita, S., Vasiliu, S., Popa, M. dan Luca, C. Polysaccharides based on Micro and Nanoparticles Obtained by Ionic Gelation and their Application as Drug Delivery Systems Review. Revue Roumaine de Chimie. 2009; 54(9):709–718.
9. Dustgani, A., Farahani, E. dan Imani, M. Preparation of chitosan nanoparticles loaded by dexamethasone sodium phosphate. Iranian J Pharm Sci. 2008; 4(2):111–114.
10. Gupta, V. dan Karar, P. Optimization of Process Variables for the Preparation of Chitosan- Alginate Nanoparticle. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2011; 3(2):78–80 .
11. Dangi, R. dan Shakya, S. Preparation, Optimization and Characterization of PLGA Nanoparticle. Int J of Pharm & Life Sci. 2013; 4(7):2810–2818.
12. Wang, N. dan Zhang, M. Chitosan-Based Hydrogels for Controlled, Localized Drug Delivery. Advanced Drug Delivery Review. 2010; 9(1): 83–99 .
13. Anggasari, N., Alauhdin, M. dan Tri, A. Sintesis dan Karakterisasi Membran Kitosan-Tripolifosfat sebagai Alternatif Pengontrol Sistem Pelepasan Obat. Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science. 2013; 2(3): 190–193.
14. Stoica, R., Somoghi, R. dan Ion, R. Preparation of Chitosan-tripolyphospate Nanoparticles for the Encapsulation of Polyphenols Exctracted from Rose Hips. Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures. 2013; 8(3): 955–963.
15. Chabib, L., Ronny, M. dan Hilda, I. Formulation of Nanocurcumin using Low Viscosity Chitosan Polymer and its Cellular Uptake Study Into T47D Cells. Indonesian J.Pharm. 2012; 23(1): 27–35 .
16. Laili, H., Winarti, L. dan Sari, L. Preparasi dan karakterisasi nanopartikel kitosan-naringenin dengan variasi rasio massa kitosa-natrium tripolifosfat. Jurnal Pustaka Kesehatan. 2014; 2(2): 308–313.
17. Chaithada, P., Supapan, J., Rodthuk, P. dan Chainarong, S. Total Flavonoids, Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity From Fruits, Leaves, Twigs and Flowers of Mesua ferrea L. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology. 2018; 15:295–304.
18. Anna, R., Suhandar, Jakaria dan Suharmadi. Uji Fungsi Freeze Dryer Radiofarmaka. Dalam: Prosiding Seminar Penelitian dan Pengolahan Perangkat Nuklir Tanggal 11 September 2011. Batan, Yogyakarta, pp. 61- 67.
19. Hariyadi, P. Pengeringan Beku dan Aplikasinya di Industri Pangan. Foodreview. 2013; 8(1): 52–56.
20. Suryadi, J. Daya Antioksidan Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Buah Manggis (Garcinia mangostana L.) Pengeringan Matahari Langsung dan Freeze- drying. Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa Universitas Surabaya. 2013; 2(1): 1–19.
21. George, M. dan Abraham, T. E. Polyionic hydrocolloids for the intestinal delivery of protein drugs: Alginate and chitosan — a review. Journal of Controlled Release. 2006; 114(1): 1–14.
22. Lin, Y. H., Sonaje, K., Lin, K.M., Juang, J.H., Mi, F.L., Yang, H.W dan Sung, H.W. Multi-ion-crosslinked nanoparticles with pH-responsive characteristics for oral delivery of protein drugs. Journal of Controlled Release. 2008; 132(1): 141–149.
23. Hajrin, W. Formulasi mikropartikel ekstrak etanol herba meniran (Phyllanthus niruri) menggunakan polimer kitosan dan Na-tpp serta uji aktivitas imunomodulator secara in vivo. Skripsi. Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta, Indonesia. 2018.
24. Taurina, W., Sari, R., Hafinur, U., Wahdaningsih, S. dan Isnindar. Optimasi kecepatan dan lama pengadukan terhadap ukuran nanopartikel kitosan-ekstrak etanol 70% kulit jeruk siam (Citrus nobilis L.var Microcarpa). Traditional Medicine Journal. 2017; 2(1): 16–20.
25. Ruby, J. dan Pandey, V. Chitosan Nanoparticles as a Nasal Drug Delivery for Memantine Hydrochloride. Int J Pharm Sci. 2015; 7(1): 34–37.
26. Bali, V., Ali, M. dan Ali, J. Study of Surfactant Combinations and Development of a Novel Nanoemulsion for Minimising Variations in Bioavailability of Ezetimibe. Colloids and Surfaces Biointerfaces. 2010; 76(1): 410–420.
27. Syukri, Y., Ziyyatul, K. dan Lutfi, C. Formulasi dan Studi Stabilitas Self-Nano Emulsifying Propolis menggunakan Minyak Kesturi, Cremophor RH 40 dan PEG 400 sebagai Pembawa. Jurnal Sains Farmasi Klinis. 2019; 6(3): 265–273.
28. Apriliyati, W. Pengaruh Kecepatan dan Lama Pengadukan Nanopartikel Buah Parjito (Medinilla speciosa) terhadap Ukuran dan Distribusi Partikel, Persen Transmitan dan Morfologi Partikel. Skripsi. UNW Semarang, Indonesia. 2020.
29. Xi, J., Chang, Q., Chan, C, K., Meng, Y., Wang, G, N., Sun, J. B., Wang, Y, T., Tong, H. Y. dan Zgheng, Y.. Formulation Development and Bioavailability Evaluation of a Self-Nanoemulsified Drug Delivery System of Oleanolic Acid. AAPS Pharmaceutical Science and Technology. 2009; 10(1): 172–182.
30. Sahumena, M. Pengembangan Nanopartikel Ketoprofen dengan Teknik SNEDDS dan Uji Aktifitas Antiinflamasi. Skripsi. Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta, Indonesia. 2014.
31. Calvo, P., Remun˜an-Lopez, C., Vila-Jato, J. dan Alonso, M. Chitosan and Chitosan/Ethylene Oxide-Propylene Oxide Block Copolymer Nanoparticles as Novel Carriers for Proteins and Vaccines. Pharm Res. 1997; 14(1): 1431–1436.
32. Yu-Shin, L., Kiran, S., Kurt, M. L., Jyuhn, H.J., Long, F., Han, Y., dan Hsing, W.S. Multi-ioncrosslinked Nanoparticles with pH-responsive Characteristics for Oral Delivery of Protein Drugs. J. Cont Rel. 2008; 132(1): 141–149.
33. Maji, R., Ray, S., Das, B. dan Nayak, A. K. Ethyl Cellulose Microparticles Containing Metformin HCl by Emulsification-Solvent Evaporation Technique: Effect of Formulation Variables. ISRN Polymer Science. 2012; 801827.
34. Premaletha, K., Licy, C., Jose, S., Saraladevi, A. dan Shirwaikar, A. Formulation, Characterization and Optimization of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen – Loaded Chitosan Microspheres for Oral Delivery. Pharm Developt. Tech. 2012; 251–258.
35. Utama, D., Dewi, M. dan Esti, H. Pengaruh Kecepatan Pengadukan terhadap Karakteristik Fisik Mikrosfer Ovalbumin-Alginat dengan Metode Aerosolisasi. Media Pharma Scientia. 2013; 2(2): 1–12.
36. Sukmaningrum, N., Lusia, O. dan Eka, D. Optimasi Konsentrasi Etil Selulosa dan Lama Pengadukan dalam Preparasi Microspheres Metformin Hidroklorida. IJPST. 2017; 4(3): 93–99.
37. Manuella, N. Preparasi dan Evaluasi Nanopartikel Azitromisin-Kitosan dan Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri terhadap Bakteri Propionibacterium acnes. Skripsi. Universitas Tanjung Pura, Indonesia. 2016.
Published
2022-10-28