Colour Vision Deficiency: Difference Between Congenital and Acquired Colour Blindness

  • Ayu Trisnayanti Yasa Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Mataram

Abstract

Color blindness is the inability or reduced ability to distinguish colors clearly in normal lighting. The incidence of color blindness varies in different geographic areas. Color blindness is related to the structure of the retina which plays a role in converting light energy into electrical signals to be transmitted to the central nervous system in the process of color perception. There are two most famous theories of color vision, namely Young-Helmholtz theory and oponen process theory. Color blindness based on its etiology is classified into congenital (inhereted as an X-linked recessive trait) and acquired (associated with other medical conditions). The diagnosis of color blindness is based on history and investigations. There are various tests that can be done as a supporting examination in the diagnosis of color blindness.

References

1. Hasrod N, Rubin A. Defects of colour vision: A review of congenital and acquired colour vision deficiencies. African Vis Eye Heal. 2016 Nov 22;75(1).
2. El Moussawi Z, Boueiri M, Al-Haddad C. Gene therapy in color vision deficiency: a review. Int Ophthalmol [Internet]. 2021 May 1 [cited 2022 May 19];41(5):1917–27. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33528822/
3. Geletu TT, Muthuswamy M, Raga TO. Identification of colorblindness among selected primary school children in Hararghe Region, Eastern Ethiopia. Alexandria J Med. 2018 Dec 1;54(4):327–30.
4. Keene DR. A review of color blindness for microscopists: guidelines and tools for accommodating and coping with color vision deficiency. Microsc Microanal [Internet]. 2015 Nov 18 [cited 2022 May 19];21(2):279–89. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25739321/
5. Hashemi H, Khabazkhoob M, Pakzad R, Yekta A, Heravian J, Nabovati P, et al. The prevalence of color vision deficiency in the northeast of Iran. J Curr Ophthalmol [Internet]. 2017 Mar 1 [cited 2022 May 19];31(1):80–5. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30899851/
6. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Laporan Nasional Riskesdas 2007. Lap Nas 2007 [Internet]. 2008;1–384. Available from: http://kesga.kemkes.go.id/images/pedoman/Riskesdas 2007 Nasional.pdf
7. Suparyadi D, Yusro M, Yuliatmojo P. Color Blindness Test By Ishihara Method Based on Microcontroller System. KnE Soc Sci. 2019 Mar 25;3(12):462.
8. Sherwood L. Fisiologi Manusia dari Sel ke Sistem. Edisi 9. Jakarta: EGC; 2018.
9. Sihota R, Tandon R. Parson’s Diseases of The Eye. 23rd ed. Gastronomía ecuatoriana y turismo local. New Delhi: Elsevier; 2020.
10. Hall JE. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology. 13th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2016.
11. Neitz J, Neitz M. The genetics of normal and defective color vision. Vision Res. 2011 Apr 13;51(7):633–51.
12. Kartika, Kuntjoro K, Yenni, Halim Y. Patofisiologi dan Diagnosis Buta Warna. Cermin Dunia Kedokt [Internet]. 2014;41(4):268–71. Available from: http://103.13.36.125/index.php/CDK/article/view/1148
13. Parmar T, M.Vanathi, Ghose S, Dada T, Venkatesh P. Colour Vision Revisited. Off Sci J Delhi Ophthalmol Soc [Internet]. 2015 May 21 [cited 2022 May 19];24(4):223–8. Available from: https://www.djo.org.in/articles/24/4/colour-vision-revisited.html
14. Pascual-Camps I, Barranco-Gonzalez H, Aviñó-Martínez J, Silva E, Harto-Castaño M. Diagnosis and Treatment Options for Achromatopsia: A Review of the Literature. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus [Internet]. 2018 Mar 1 [cited 2022 May 19];55(2):85–92. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29257187/
15. Heidary F, Gharebaghi R, Beheshti S. A Modified Pseudoisochromatic Ishihara Colour Vision Test Based on Eastern Arabic Numerals. Med Hypothesis, Discov Innov Ophthalmol [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2022 May 19];2(3):83. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC3939756/
16. Ali A. Review of the Color Vision Tests Currently in Use. J Ophthalmol Vis Sci [Internet]. 2020;5(1):1036. Available from: www.austinpublishinggroup.com
17. Mercer ME, Drodge SC, Courage ML, Adams RJ. A pseudoisochromatic test of color vision for human infants. Vision Res [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2022 May 19];100:72–7. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24768799/
18. Rabin J, Gooch J, Ivan D. Rapid Quantification of Color Vision: The Cone Contrast Test. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Feb 1;52(2):816–20.
19. Walsh D V., Robinson J, Jurek GM, Capó-Aponte JE, Riggs DW, Temme LA. A Performance Comparison of Color Vision Tests for Military Screening. Aerosp Med Hum Perform [Internet]. 2016 Apr 1 [cited 2022 May 19];87(4):382–7. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27026122/
20. Hovis JK, Almustanyir A. Assessment of the Next Generation of Colour Vision Tests for Pilots and Aircrew. Canada; 2017.
Published
2022-10-28
Section
Literature Review