COMORBIDITY AS A RISK FACTOR FOR MORTALITY OF PATIENTS WITH COVID-19

  • Komang Pranayoga Prandhana Putra Nartha Universitas Mataram
Keywords: COVID-19, comorbidity, mortality

Abstract

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious respiratory disease caused by a new type of coronavirus that has never been previously identified, namely SARS-CoV-2. The high number of deaths in COVID-19 patients is associated with comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, kidney disease, cancer and liver disease. The pathophysiological mechanisms of comorbidity in exacerbating symptoms and increasing the risk of mortality in COVID-19 patients are complex and diverse. In patients with hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and kidney disease, there is an increase in the expression of ACE-2 receptors, making them very susceptible to COVID-19 infection. The decrease and weakening of the body's immune system plays an important role in the aggravation of the symptoms of COVID-19 in cancer, liver and cardiovascular disease patients. In diabetic patients, impaired T cell function and elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) play a role in increasing the severity of COVID-19 disease. Meanwhile, in asthmatic patients, IgE cross-linking and decreased interferon production make asthmatic patients more susceptible to viral infections and can worsen asthma symptoms and exacerbations.

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Published
2022-11-02
Section
Literature Review