• Betsy Yosia Nadeak Universitas Sumatera Utara
  • Keneyzia Carla Gliselda Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran
  • Larasati Budiyarto Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran
  • Fredric Zulkifly Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran E


In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 as a Pandemic. Vaccines are biological products that can be used to induce the body's immune response which can provide protection against infection and/or disease upon exposure to pathogens. As such, vaccination becomes one of the key roles to prevent the spreading of COVID-19. Based on the results of clinical trials, COVID-19 vaccine shows adequate levels of immunogenicity with various levels of effectiveness and acceptable level of safety. With vaccinations being implemented worldwide, side effects ranging from mild to severe have been reported. Understanding mucocutaneousside effects of COVID-19 Vaccine are important, as they can be seen with the naked eye and have the potential to frighten individuals and populations, leading to public reluctance to being vaccinated.


1. Özdemir Ö. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Diagnosis and Management (narrative review). Erciyes Medical Journal. Published online 2020. doi:10.14744/etd.2020.99836
2. Susilo A, Martin Rumende C, Pitoyo CW, et al. TINJAUAN PUSTAKA. Vol 7.; 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/
3. da Rosa Mesquita R, Francelino Silva Junior LC, Santos Santana FM, et al. Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 in the general population: systematic review. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift. 2021;133(7-8):377-382. doi:10.1007/s00508-020-01760-4
4. Callaway Ewen, Cyranoski David, Mallapaty Smriti, Stoye Emma, Tollefson Jeff. Coronavirus By The Numbers. Springer Nature. 2020;579.
5. Bogdanov G, Bogdanov I, Kazandjieva J, Tsankov N. Cutaneous adverse effects of the available COVID-19 vaccines: Effects of COVID-19 vaccines. Clinics in Dermatology. 2021;39(3):523-531. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2021.04.001
6. Kementrian Kesehatan, ITAGI, WHO, UNICEF. Survei Penerimaan Vaksin COVID- 19 Di Indonesia. Published online 2020:1-26.
7. Yan Z, Yang M, Lai CL. Covid-19 vaccines: A review of the safety and efficacy of current clinical trials. Pharmaceuticals. 2021;14(5). doi:10.3390/ph14050406
8. Elgendy MO, El-Gendy AO, Mahmoud S, Mohammed TY, Abdelrahim MEA, Sayed AM. Side Effects and Efficacy of COVID-19 Vaccines among the Egyptian Population. Vaccines (Basel). 2022;10(1). doi:10.3390/vaccines10010109
9. Kumar S, Nyodu R, Maurya VK, Saxena SK. Morphology, Genome Organization, Replication, and Pathogenesis of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In: ; 2020:23-31. doi:10.1007/978-981-15-4814-7_3
10. Pollard AJ, Bijker EM. A guide to vaccinology: from basic principles to new developments. Nat Rev Immunol. 2021 Feb;21(2):83-100. doi: 10.1038/s41577-020- 00479-7. Epub 2020 Dec 22. Erratum in: Nat Rev Immunol. 2021 Jan 5;: PMID: 33353987; PMCID: PMC7754704.
11. Escobar A, Reyes-López FE, Acevedo ML, Alonso-Palomares L, Valiente-Echeverría F, Soto-Rifo R, et al. Evaluation of the Immune Response Induced by CoronaVac 28- Day Schedule Vaccination in a Healthy Population Group. Front Immunol. 2022;12(January):1–8.

12. Jara A, Undurraga EA, González C, Paredes F, Fontecilla T, Jara G, et al. Effectiveness of an Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine in Chile. N Engl J Med.2021 Sep 2;385(10):875–84.
13. Heath PT, Galiza EP, Baxter DN, Boffito M, Browne D, Burns F, et al. Safety and Efficacy of NVX-CoV2373 Covid-19 Vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2021 Sep 23;385(13):1172–83.
14. Mascellino MT, Di Timoteo F, De Angelis M, Oliva A. Overview of the Main Anti- SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines: Mechanism of Action, Efficacy and Safety. Infect Drug Resist. 2021 Aug;Volume 14:3459–76.
15. Bettini E, Locci M. SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccines: Immunological Mechanism and Beyond. Vaccines. 2021 Feb 12;9(2):147.
16. Zafar M, Ewnetu B, Ahmed S, Iqbal U, Whitehead M. COVID-19 Vaccination- Induced Rash: Does the Choice of Vaccine Matter? Cureus. 2021 Jun 7;
17. Hatami P, Aryanian Z, Asl HN, Goodarzi A. Mucocutaneous adverse effects following COVID-19 vaccination: a case series with a comprehensive review of the literature. Vol. 24, Iranian Journal of Dermatology. Iranian Society of Dermatology; 2021. p. 331–8.
18. Tan SW, Tam YC, Pang SM. Cutaneous reactions to COVID-19 vaccines: A review. JAAD International. 2022 Jun 1;7:178–86.
19. Gisondi P, Bellinato F, Girolomoni G. Skin adverse reactions to Sars-CoV-2 vaccination: a relevant responsibility issue for dermatologists. Vol. 36, Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. John Wiley and Sons Inc; 2022. p. 165–6.
20. Benyamna Y, Marraha F, al Faker I, Chahoub H, Rahmani N, Rkiek Y, et al. Site Injection Reaction, Maculopapular Rash, and Rosacea Exacerbation after COVID-19 Vaccination. Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine. 2022;2022.
21. Bellinato F, Maurelli M, Gisondi P, Girolomoni G. Cutaneous adverse reactions associated with sars?cov?2 vaccines. Vol. 10, Journal of Clinical Medicine. MDPI; 2021.
22. Picone V, Martora F, Fabbrocini G, Marano L. “Covid arm”: Abnormal side effect after Moderna COVID-19 vaccine. Vol. 35, Dermatologic Therapy. John Wiley and Sons Inc; 2022.
23. Avallone G, Quaglino P, Cavallo F, Roccuzzo G, Ribero S, Zalaudek I, et al. SARS- CoV-2 vaccine-related cutaneous manifestations: a systematic review. International Journal of Dermatology. John Wiley and Sons Inc; 2022.
24. Choi E, Liew CF, Oon HH. Cutaneous adverse effects and contraindications to COVID-19 vaccination; four cases and an illustrative review from an Asian country. Vol. 34, Dermatologic Therapy. John Wiley and Sons Inc; 2021.
25. Qaderi K, Golezar MH, Mardani A, Mallah MA, Moradi B, Kavoussi H, et al. Cutaneous adverse reactions of COVID-19 vaccines: A systematic review. Vol. 35, Dermatologic Therapy. John Wiley and Sons Inc; 2022.
26. Klimek L, Bergmann KC, Brehler R, Pfützner W, Zuberbier T, Hartmann K, et al. Practical handling of allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines: A position paper from German and Austrian Allergy Societies AeDA, DGAKI, GPA and ÖGAI. Allergo Journal International. 2021 May 1;30(3):79–95.
27. Rice SM, Ferree SD, Mesinkovska NA, Kourosh AS. The art of prevention: COVID-19 vaccine preparedness for the dermatologist. Vol. 7, International Journal of Women’s Dermatology. Elsevier Inc.; 2021. p. 209–12.
Literature Review

Most read articles by the same author(s)