• Fredy Ciputra 082281009629
Keywords: diagnosis, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, ocular coherence tomography, ocular coherence tomography angiography, imaging


Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is a major cause of visual disability in most Asian populations due to exudative maculopathy. PCV is a disease that is often either underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed considering that the diagnosis is highly dependent on imaging modalities. Diagnostic modalities that can be used for PCV are fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), ocular coherence tomography (OCT), en face OCT, ocular coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), and even artificial intelligence. Despite of ICGA with its invasive nature, limited availability, and relatively expensive cost, it still remains as a gold standard diagnostic modality for PCV. Clinicians can use various other investigation modalities to assist in diagnosing PCV considering the limitations of ICGA based on various studies that have been carried out. Various diagnostic modalities, both existing and new, can be considered for use and combined to increase the accuracy of non-invasive diagnostics. Clinicians must also continue to improve their skills and knowledge amid the development of diagnostic technology in the era of multi-modality imaging.


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