Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA)
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA / AHA) is a disorder of erythrocytes characterized by the destruction of erythrocytes by autoantibodies in a person's body. AIHA can occur at any age, but most often affects people over the age of 40. The incidence is 17:100,000 people per year with a mortality rate of up to 11%. In general, AIHA occurs intravascularly and extravascularly with or without complement activation. AIHA patients usually experience pallor, weakness, dyspnea, hypotension, tachycardia, jaundice of the skin mucosa, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly. To establish the diagnosis of AIHA, apart from the history and physical examination, laboratory tests are also obtained in the form of a complete blood count, erythrocyte index, LDH, indirect bilirubin, reticulosis, and peripheral blood morphology. In addition, it is necessary to examine to detect autoantibodies in erythrocytes. This examination is commonly known as the Coombs test in the form of a direct Coombs test (Direct Antiglobulin Test / DAT) and an indirect Coombs test (Indirect Antiglobulin Test / IAT).
2. Bakta IM. Hematologi Klinik Ringkas. Jakarta: EGC; 2020.
3. Barcellini W, Fattizzo B. The Changing Landscape of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia. Front Immunol. 2020;11(946).
4. Michalak SS, Olewicz-Gawlik A, Rupa-Matysek, J. et al. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia: current knowledge and perspectives. Immun Ageing [Internet]. 2020;17. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12979-020-00208-7.%0D
5. Zanella A, Barcellini W. Treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemias. Haematologica. 2014;99(10).
6. Kalfa TA. Warm antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Hematol (United States) [Internet]. 2016;2016. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1182/asheducation-2016.1.690.
7. Barcellini W, Zaninoni A, Giannotta JA, Fattizzo B. New Insights in Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: From Pathogenesis to Therapy. J Clin Med. 2020;9.
8. Sudulagunta SR, Kumbhat M, Sodalagunta MB, Settikere Nataraju A, Bangalore Raja SK, Thejaswi, K. C. et al. Warm Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: Clinical Profile and Management. J Hematol. 2017;6.
9. Hill QA, Hill A, Berentsen S. Defining autoimmune hemolytic anemia: A systematic review of the terminology used for diagnosis and treatment. Blood Adv. 2019;3.
10. Michel M. Classification and therapeutic approaches in autoimmune hemolytic anemia: an update. Expert Rev Hematol [Internet]. 2014;4(6). Available from: https://doi.org/10.1586/ehm.11.60
11. Packman CH. The clinical pictures of autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Transfus Med Hemotherapy [Internet]. 2015;42. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1159/000440656.
12. Keir LS, Marks SD, Kim JJ. Shigatoxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome: Current molecular mechanisms and future therapies. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2012;6.
13. Berentsen S, Sundic T. Red Blood cell destruction in autoimmune hemolytic anemia: Role of complement and potential new targets for therapy. Biomed Res Int [Internet]. 2015;2015. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/363278
14. Hill A, Hill QA. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Am Soc Hematol [Internet]. 2018; Available from: https://doi.org/10.1182/asheducation-2018.1.382.
15. Chaundary R, Das SS. Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: From Lab to Bedside. Asian J Transfus Sci [Internet]. 2014;8(5–12). Available from: https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-6247.126681.
Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Kedokteran
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.