Kanker Gaster : Literature Review


  • Ahmad Nur Rifa'i Universitas Mataram
  • Falira Khoirunnisa Az-Zahra Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Mataram, NTB, Indonesia
  • Nyoman Ayu Anindya Maharani Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Mataram, Mataram, Indonesia
  • Muhammad Zaim Muflih Syamsuddin Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Mataram, Mataram, Indonesia
  • Baiq Aisha Aryuni Oeiya Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Mataram, Mataram, Indonesia
  • I Made Gyanendra Nanda Tresna Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Mataram, Mataram, Indonesia
  • Nova Izza Salsa Ramadhita Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Mataram, Mataram, Indonesia
  • Raehanul Bahraen Departemen Patologi Klinik, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Mataram, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Indonesia




Gastric Cancer Risk Factors, Symptoms, and Management


Stomach cancer, or gastric cancer, is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among malignancies. Gastric cancer can be influenced by several factors, including diet, lifestyle, genetics, family history, Helicobacter pylori infection, age, education level, economic status, and other factors. Gastric cancer has several types, namely sporadic gastric cancer (SGC), early onset gastric cancer (EOGC), gastric stump cancer (GSC), and hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). Gastric cancer often remains asymptomatic in its early stages due to normal stomach function. Subsequently, symptoms will emerge as the cancer grows larger, leading to impaired nutrient absorption in the intestines, resulting in weight loss and weakness. Common symptoms of gastric cancer are similar to those of chronic gastritis, including digestive disturbances (dyspepsia), difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), and nausea. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy can be used to detect gastric cancer in its early stages. In its management, gastric cancer can be treated through surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The prognosis for gastric cancer is determined by the stage of cancer development. Patients with gastric cancer detected in the early stages and treated with surgery have a very high chance of surviving for at least 5 years after the operation, exceeding 90%.



Berlth, F., Bollschweiler, E., Drebber, U., Hoelscher, A. H., & Moenig, S. (2014). Pathohistological classification systems in gastric cancer: diagnostic relevance and prognostic value. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 20(19), 5679–5684. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v20.i19.5679

Cheng, X. J., Lin, J. C., & Tu, S. P. (2016). Etiology and Prevention of Gastric Cancer. Gastrointestinal Tumors, 3(1), 25–36. https://doi.org/10.1159/000443995

Chudri, J. (2020). Kanker lambung: kenali penyebab sampai pencegahannya. Jurnal Biomedika Dan Kesehatan, 3(3), 144–152. https://doi.org/10.18051/jbiomedkes.2020.v3.144-152

Hui, Y., Tu, C., Liu, D., Zhang, H., & Gong, X. (2023). Risk factors for gastric cancer: A comprehensive analysis of observational studies. Frontiers in Public Health, 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.892468

Ishaq, S., & Nunn, L. (2015). Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: a state of the art review. Gastroenterology and Hepatology from Bed to Bench, 8(Suppl 1), S6–S14.

Jencks, D. S., Adam, J. D., Borum, M. L., Koh, J. M., Stephen, S., & Doman, D. B. (2018). Overview of Current Concepts in Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia and Gastric Cancer. Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 14(2), 92–101.

Karimi, P., Islami, F., Anandasabapathy, S., Freedman, N. D., & Kamangar, F. (2014). Gastric cancer: descriptive epidemiology, risk factors, screening, and prevention. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : A Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 23(5), 700–713. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-1057

Kim, G. H., Liang, P. S., Bang, S. J., & Hwang, J. H. (2016). Screening and surveillance for gastric cancer in the United States: Is it needed? Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 84(1), 18–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2016.02.028

Kumar, Abbas, & Aster. (2020). Buku Ajar Patologi Dasar Robbins, tenth edition.

Mukkamalla, S. K. R., Recio-Boiles, A., & Babiker, H. M. (2023). Gastric Cancer. StatPearls Treasure Island. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119522997.ch13

Mustafa, M., Menon, J., Muniandy, R., Illzam, E., Nornazirah, A., Nang, M., Fairrul, K., & Sharifa, A. (2017). Gastric Cancer:Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Management. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, 16(03), 69–74. https://doi.org/10.9790/0853-1603126974


Neeraj, N., & Radha, S. (2018). Gastric cancer - An update. J Tumor Med Prev, 2(5), 84–92.

Orditura, M., Galizia, G., Sforza, V., Gambardella, V., Fabozzi, A., Laterza, M. M., Andreozzi, F., Ventriglia, J., Savastano, B., Mabilia, A., Lieto, E., Ciardiello, F., & De Vita, F. (2014). Treatment of gastric cancer. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 20(7), 1635–1649. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v20.i7.1635

Piazuelo, M. B., & Division, P. C. (2013). Gastric cancer: Overview Cáncer. Colomobia Medica, 44(3), 192–201.

Ramos, M. F. K. P., Ribeiro, U., Viscondi, J. K. Y., Zilberstein, B., Cecconello, I., & Eluf-Neto, J. (2018). Risk factors associated with the development of gastric cancer - Case-control study. Revista Da Associacao Medica Brasileira, 64(7), 611–619. https://doi.org/10.1590/1806-9282.64.07.611

Sitarz, R., Skierucha, M., Mielko, J., Offerhaus, G. J. A., Maciejewski, R., & Polkowski, W. P. (2018). Gastric cancer: epidemiology, prevention, classification, and treatment. Cancer Management and Research, 10, 239–248. https://doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S149619

Weston, A. C., Giordani, D., C. Cereser, Menguer, R., Laporte, G., Roth, A., Weschenfelder, R., Albrecht, B., & Assumpção, J. (2016). Multidisciplinary Treatment of Gastric Cancer, Results in Ten Year Experience of a Brazilian Center: Southern Trial. International Journal of Digestive Diseases, 2(1), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.4172/2472-1891.100020

Yada, T., Yokoi, C., & Uemura, N. (2013). The current state of diagnosis and treatment for early gastric cancer. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/241320

Yusefi, A. R., Lankarani, K. B., Bastani, P., Radinmanesh, M., & Kavosi, Z. (2018). Risk factors for gastric cancer: A systematic review. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 19(3), 591–603. https://doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2018.19.3.591




How to Cite

Rifa’i, A. N., Falira Khoirunnisa Az-Zahra, Nyoman Ayu Anindya Maharani, Muhammad Zaim Muflih Syamsuddin, Baiq Aisha Aryuni Oeiya, I Made Gyanendra Nanda Tresna, Nova Izza Salsa Ramadhita, & Raehanul Bahraen. (2023). Kanker Gaster : Literature Review. Jurnal Kedokteran, 12(4), 385–390. https://doi.org/10.29303/jku.v12i4.984