Intoxication Of Mercury: Risk Factors, Pathophysiology And Its Impact For Pregnant Women In The Artisanal And Small Scale Gold Mining


  • Ardiana Ekawanti universitas Mataram
  • Seto Priyambodo



Intoxication, Mercury, Pregnant Woman, Fetus


Mercury exposure of pregnant women comes from various sources including pollution from gold mining, from the consumption of fish and equipment in the neighborhood where they live. Intoxication that occurs as a result of exposure is determined by the type of mercury, route, dose, duration of exposure and age of the host. Mercury exposure in a pregnant woman not only causes intoxication for her but also affects the fetus . The fetus is a developmental phase that is very susceptible to mercury exposure of all kinds from its mother. Various effects that can arise from this exposure on the fetus include stillbirth, low birth weight and congenital abnormalities.


1. Veiga MM, Angeloci-Santos G, Meech JA, 2014. Review of Barriers to Reduce Mercury Use in Artisanal Gold Mining, The Extractive Industry and Society (1):351-361
2. Morgan DL, Chanda SM, Price HC, Fernando R, Liu J, Brambila E, O’Connor WR, Beliles RP, Barone S Jr. 2002. Disposition of Inhaled Mercury Vapor in Pregnant Rats: Maternal Toxicity and Effect on Developmental Outcomes. Toxicological Sciences (66):261-273
3. Gunradi R. 2005. Evaluasi Sumber Daya Cadangan Bahan Galian untuk Pertambangan Skala Kecil Daerah Pulau Lombok Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Barat (Pemaparan Hasil Kegiatan Subdit Konservasi. Lombok. ESDM. Available at. › 12-Lombok
4. WHO, 2000. Mercury: Air Quality Guidelines. Denmark, WHO Regional Office for Europe
5. Kolev ST and Bates N. 1996. Mercury. London. UK PID.

6. Ramon R, Murcia M, Aguinagalde X, Amurrio A, Llop S, Ibarluzea, J, Lertxundi A, Martinez-Arguelles B, Ballester F.2011. Prenatal Mercury Exposure in a Multicenter Cohort Study in Spain. Environment International; 37:597-604.
7. WHO, 2008. Guidance For Identifying Population At Risk From Mercury Exposure. Geneva. UNEP
8. Ekawanti A, Krisnayanti BD. 2015. Effect of Mercury Exposure on Renal Function and Hematological Parameters Among Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Miners at Sekotong, West Lombok, Indonesia, JHP 5(9):25-32
9. Franko A, Budihna MV, Fikfak MD, 2005. Long term Effects of Elemental Mercury on Renal Function in Miners of Idrija Mercury Mine. Ann Occup Hyg.49(6):521-7
10. Andreoli V, Sprovieri F, 2017. Genetic Aspects of Suceptibility to Mercury Toxicity. Int Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
11. Krisnayanti B. D, et all, 2012. Assessment of environmental mercury discharge at a four-year-old artisanal gold mining area on Lombok Island, Indonesia . J. Environ. Monit., 2012, 14, 2598.
12. Cortes J, Peralta J, Diaz-Navarro R. 2018. Acute Respiratory Syndrome Following Accidental Inhalation of Mercury Vapor. Clin Case Rep (6):1535-1537
13. Smiechowicz J, Skoczynska A, Nieckula-Szwarc A, Kulpa K, Kubler A. 2017. Occupational Mercury Vapour Poisoning with a Respiratory Failure, Pneumomediastinum and Severe Quadriparesis. SAGE Open Medical Case Reports vol. 5:1-4.
14. Weigand KL, Reno JL, Rowley BM. 2015. Low Level Mercury Causes Inappropriate Activation in T and B Lymphocytes in Absence of Antigen Stimulation. Journal of Arkansas Academy of Science vol. 69:116-123
15. Bose-O’Reilly S, McCarty KM, Steckling N, Lettmeier B, 2010. Mercury Exposure and Children’s Health. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care ;40(8):186-215
16. Wu J, Ying T, Shen Z, Wang H. 2014. Effect of Low-Level Prenatal Mercury Exposure on Neonate Neurobehavioral Development in China. Pediatr Neurol;51:93-99
17. Koren G and Bend JR, 2010. Fish Consumption in Pregnancy and Fetal Risks of Methylmercury Toxicity, Canadian Family Physician (56)
18. Magos L, Clarkson TW, 2006, Overview of The Clinical Toxicity of Mercury, Ann Clin Biochem; 43:257-268
19. Davidson PW, Myers GJ, Weiss B, 2004. Mercury Exposure and Child Development Outcomes, Pediatric 113(4): 1023-1029
20. Dolk H, Vrijheid M. 2003. The Impact of Environmental Pollution on Congenital Anomalies. British Medical Bulletin; 68: 25-45
21. Da Rocha JC, Maior RS, Tomaz C. 2011. Mercury Pollution and Congenital Malformations Detected at Birth in Porto Velho, Brazil, from 1997 to 2007. Salud UIS; 43 (3): 237-240




How to Cite

Ekawanti, A., & Priyambodo, S. (2020). Intoxication Of Mercury: Risk Factors, Pathophysiology And Its Impact For Pregnant Women In The Artisanal And Small Scale Gold Mining. Jurnal Kedokteran, 9(2), 158–165.



Literature Review

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>