Effect of Arsenic Contamination in Drinking Water During Pregnancy with the Incidence of Congenital Heart Disease: A Meta-Analysis
Background: Water is a basic human need. The need for clean water continues to increase along with the increasing human population. Drinking water providers are required to provide harmless water. Several studies have discussed the effect of arsenic contamination in drinking water on the incidence of congenital heart disease. Objective: To evaluate the impact of arsenic contamination in drinking water during pregnancy on the incidence of congenital heart disease. Method: Search for published scientific articles using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting, Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) method conducted on PubMed using the following keywords: “arsenic”, “drinking water” “contamination”, “congenital heart desease”, “congenital heart defect” as the keyword, also combined by using “or” and “and”. Further meta-analysis using Jamovi version 2.2.5 software were performed based on the included published scientific articles. Result: Based on 3 studies included about effect of arsenic contamination in drinking water during pregnancy with the incidence of congenital heart disease, the analytical results showed a statistically significant positive relationship (z=1.42, p<0.001;95% CI[-0.038;0.240]) but in the low category (r=0.101). Conclusion: Arsenic contamination in drinking water during pregnancy has a low effect on the incidence of congenital heart disease.
Keyword: drinking water, arsenic, congenital heart disease
2. Ersbøll, A.K., Monrad, M., Sørensen, M., Baastrup, R., Hansen, B., Bach, F.W., Tjønneland, A., Overvad, K., Raaschou-Nielsen, O. Low-level exposure to arsenic in drinking water and incidence rate of stroke: a cohort study in Denmark. Environ. Int. 2018; 120: 72–80.
3. WHO. Arsenic and Arsenic Compounds. Environmental Healt Criteria 224. Geneva : s.n., 2001.
4. Marie, C., Léger, S., Guttmann, A., Marchiset, N., Rivière, O., Perthus, I., Lémery, D., Vendittelli, F., & Sauvant-Rochat, M.-P. In utero exposure to arsenic in tap water and congenital anomalies: A French semi-ecological study. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health.2018; 221(8): 1116–1123.
5. Ramsay, L., Petersen, M. M., Hansen, B., Schullehner, J., van der Wens, P., Voutchkova, D., & Kristiansen, S. M. Drinking water criteria for arsenic in high-income, low-dose countries: The effect of legislation on Public Health. Environmental Science & Technology.2021; 55(6): 3483–3493.
6. Ahmad, A., van der Wens, P., Baken, K., de Waal, L., Bhattacharya, P., Stuyfzand, P. Arsenic reduction to <1 ?g/L in Dutch drinking water. Environ. Int. 2020; 134: 10525.
7. Chen, Y., Graziano, J.H., Parvez, F., Liu, M., Slavkovich, V., Kalra, T., Argos, M., Islam, T., Ahmed, A., Rakibuz-Zaman, M., Hasan, R., Sarwar, G., Levy, D., van Geen, A., Ahsan, H. Arsenic exposure from drinking water and mortality from cardiovascular disease in Bangladesh: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2011; 342: d2431.
8. Nicoll R. Environmental Contaminants and Congenital Heart Defects: A Re-Evaluation of the Evidence. International journal of environmental research and public health.2018; 15(10): 2096.
9. Richter, F., Kloster, S., Wodschow, K., Hansen, B., Schullehner, J., Kristiansen, S. M., Petersen, M. M., Strandberg-Larsen, K., & Ersbøll, A. K. Maternal exposure to arsenic in drinking water and risk of congenital heart disease in the offspring. Environment international.2022: 160; 107051.
10. Zierler, S.; Theodore, M.; Cohen, A.; Rothman, K.J. Chemical quality of maternal drinking water and congenital heart disease. Int. J. Epidemiol. 1988; 17:589–594.
11. Rudnai, T.; Sándor, J.; Kádár, M.; Borsányi, M.; Béres, J.; Métneki, J.; Maráczi, G.; Rudnai, P. Arsenic in drinking water and congenital heart anomalies in Hungary. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health. 2014; 217: 813–818.
12. Jin, X., Tian, X., Liu, Z., Hu, H., Li, X., Deng, Y., Li, N., & Zhu, J. Maternal exposure to arsenic and cadmium and the risk of congenital heart defects in offspring. Reproductive Toxicology. 2016; 59: 109–116.
Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Kedokteran
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.