Characteristics of Amnesia After Brain Injury at Regional General Hospital of West Nusa Tenggara Province


  • Lalu Wahyu Alfian Muharzami Universitas Mataram
  • Rohadi Muhammad Rosyidi Universitas Mataram/Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Provinsi NTB
  • Ilsa Hunaifi Universitas Mataram/Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Provinsi NTB
  • Bambang Priyanto Universitas Mataram/Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Provinsi NTB



Cedera otak, Letak lesi, Karakteristik, Amnesia pasca trauma


Background: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a brain disorder caused by a traumatic process such as an impact, blow, or stab to the head, causing impaired brain function. Several external causes of TBI, such as falls, road traffic accidents, and beatings/assaults. Impaired memory function is one form of the neuropsychological disorder that can occur after injury. Post-Traumatic Amnesia (PTA) is a post-injury condition characterized by difficulty remembering things that were happened before or retaining information that has just happened.

Methods: This research was conducted at West Nusa Tenggara Province General Hospital using a cross-sectional design and has passed the review of the research ethics team (ethical clearance). The number of research samples was 40 people with brain injury. We collected head CT scan results and interviews using the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test (TOAG) questionnaire. Sampling using a consecutive sampling method. Data are presented descriptively.

Results: Of the 40 TBI patients, 33 patients had PTA (82.5%). Most patients with PTA are between 18 and 30 years of age (45.46%), most of them were male (81.8%), and most patients had high school educational levels (42.43%). Based on the severity of brain injury, most PTA patients had a mild brain injury (57.58%). Based on the head ct scan, most PTA patients had diffuse lesions (51.52%).

Conclusion: TBI patients who experienced PTA were dominated by men aged 18 to 30 years and had a high school education level. In addition, the location of diffuse lesions is often seen in TBI patients with PTA.


1. Dewan MC, Rattani A, Gupta S, Baticulon RE, Hung YC, Punchak M, et al. Estimating the global incidence of traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurosurgery. 2018;130(4):1–18.
2. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. RISKESDAS. 2018;
3. Faul M, Coronado V. Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury. 3rd ed. Vol. 127, Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Elsevier B.V.; 2015. 3–13.
4. Rosyidi RM, Priyanto B, Laraswati NKP, Islam AA, Hatta M, Bukhari A, et al. Characteristics and clinical outcome of traumatic brain injury in Lombok, Indonesia. Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery: Advanced Techniques and Case Management [Internet]. 2019;18. Available from:
5. Rosyidi RM, Priyanto B, Al Fauzi A, Sutiono AB. Toward zero mortality in acute epidural hematoma: A review in 268 cases problems and challenges in the developing country. Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery: Advanced Techniques and Case Management. 2019;17:12–8.
6. Hussain SS, Kamboh UA, Raza MA, Shahzad M, Shahid S, Ashraf N. Prevalence of Post Traumatic Amnesia after Mild Closed Traumatic Brain Injury by Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test. Pakistan Journal Of Neurological Surgery. 2019;23(3):157–62.
7. Bossers SM, Boer C, Bloemers FW, van Lieshout EMM, den Hartog D, Hoogerwerf N, et al. Epidemiology, Prehospital Characteristics and Outcomes of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in The Netherlands: The BRAIN-PROTECT Study. Prehospital Emergency Care [Internet]. 2021;25(5):644–55. Available from:
8. Arifin MZ, Setiabudi A, Faried A. Correlation between post-traumatic amnesia with behavioral disorders in the mild-and moderate-traumatic brain injury patient. Bali Medical Journal. 2021 Aug 1;10(2):491–4.
9. Silva SCF, Sousa RMC. Factors associated with long-term post-traumatic amnesia. 2011;24(2):232–8.
10. Fraser EE, Downing MG, Biernacki K, McKenzie DP, Ponsford JL. Cognitive reserve and age predict cognitive recovery after mild to severe traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma. 2019 Oct 1;36(19):2753–61.
11. Venturini S, Still MEH, Vycheth I, Nang S, Vuthy D, Park KB. The National Motorcycle Helmet Law at 2 Years: Review of Its Impact on the Epidemiology of Traumatic Brain Injury in a Major Government Hospital in Cambodia. World Neurosurgery [Internet]. 2019;125:320–6. Available from:
12. Maas AIR, Menon DK, David Adelson PD, Andelic N, Bell MJ, Belli A, et al. Traumatic brain injury: Integrated approaches to improve prevention, clinical care, and research. Vol. 16, The Lancet Neurology. Lancet Publishing Group; 2017. p. 987–1048.
13. Gupta S, Klaric K, Sam N, Din V, Juschkewitz T, Iv V, et al. Impact of helmet use on traumatic brain injury from road traffic accidents in Cambodia. Traffic Injury Prevention. 2018 Jan 2;19(1):66–70.
14. Faried A, Bachani AM, Sendjaja AN, Hung YW, Arifin MZ. Characteristics of Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury of Motorcycle Crashes in Bandung, Indonesia. World Neurosurgery. 2017 Apr 1;100:195–200.
15. Fotakopoulos G, Makris D, Tsianaka E, Kotlia P, Karakitsios P, Gatos C, et al. The value of the identification of predisposing factors for post-traumatic amnesia in management of mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury [Internet]. 2018;32(5):563–8. Available from:
16. Al-Ozairi A, McCullagh S, Feinstein A. Predicting Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Following Mild, Moderate, and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: The Role of Posttraumatic Amnesia. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation. 2015;30(4):283–9.
17. Sherer M, Struchen MA, Yablon SA, Wang Y, Nick TG. Comparison of indices of traumatic brain injury severity: Glasgow Coma Scale, length of coma and post-traumatic amnesia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 2008;79(6):678–85.
18. Nakase-Richardson R, Yablon SA, Sherer M. Prospective comparison of acute confusion severity with duration of post-traumatic amnesia in predicting employment outcome after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 2007 Aug;78(8):872–6.
20. Pavlovic D, Pekic S, Stojanovic M, Popovic V. Traumatic brain injury: neuropathological, neurocognitive and neurobehavioral sequelae. Pituitary. Springer New York LLC; 2019.




How to Cite

Muharzami, L. W. A., Rohadi Muhammad Rosyidi, Ilsa Hunaifi, & Bambang Priyanto. (2022). Characteristics of Amnesia After Brain Injury at Regional General Hospital of West Nusa Tenggara Province. Jurnal Kedokteran, 11(3), 1140–1144.




Most read articles by the same author(s)