Dive profile of traditional divers in Lombok Indonesia,risks for acute dysbaric disorder?


  • Eustachius Hagni Wardoyo Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Mataram




acute dysbaric disorder, traditional diver


Traditional diver is assumed of having acute dysbaric disorder’ risk higher than recreational scuba divers. We described dive profile of traditional divers in Lombok Indonesia and possible risk of acute dysbaric disorder.

Acute dysbaric disorder (ADD) symptoms were recorded and corresponding signs were observed. Dive profile is constructed based on justification measurement due to lack of measuring instruments used.

As much as 30 traditional divers were interviewed to fill a questionnaire. All participants are male, aged 20-60 years old (mean 40.7). In one-week, average diving trip was 4.5 times, each trip averagely consists of 4.7 (3-8) dives. Average depth 20.2 (10-50) meters with descent rate and ascent rate of 5.3 meters/minute and 2.6 meter/minute, respectively.  Average actual dive time was 55.3 minutes for first dive and 67.5 minutes for following dive. Average ADD’ complaints are: extreme tiredness 83.3%, tinnitus 76.6%, headache 73.3%, dizziness 73.3%, muscular pain 63.3%, forgetful 60%, vertigo 56.6% and decreased appetite 50%.

In conclusion, repetitive dive and diving in a raw for three consecutive days are possible risks to ADD with 3 prominent symptoms are: extreme tiredness, tinnitus and headache.


Alexander AM; Martin N. 2021. Arterial Gas Embolism. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan- Akses 5 Februari 2022. Laman: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK546599/
Anonim. Chapter 14. Disorder of Oxygenation and Carbon dioxide Elimination. https://uk.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/4_cook-_disorders_of_oxygenation_and_carbon_dioxide_elinination_0.pdf
Atwell J; Murphy-Lavoie HM; Hendriksen S; Cooper JS.2021. Dysbarism. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Akses 3 Februari 2022. Laman: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537266/
DAN 2001 Report on DCI, Diving Fatalities, and—Divers Alert Network https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/26979213/dan-2001-report-on-dci-diving-fatalities-and-divers-alert-network
Desola J, 1996. Descriptive Classification of Diving Dysorders. 4th report. Coordinating Committee of Hyperbaric Medical Centres. Barcelona, Spain. Available at: https://www.cccmh.com/CLASSIF4.pdf
Dulahu WY, A Mursyidah, Pomalango ZB. Risk Factor that affect the incidence of ear barotrauma in traditional diver fisherman. Jurnal Aisyah Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan. Vol 6 (2021) DOI : 10.30604/jika.v6iS1.778
Freiberger J. Acute dysbaric disorder. Undersea and hyperbaric medicine society-UHMS [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2022 Jan 14]. Available from: https://www.uhms.org/publications/pressure/acute-dysbaric-disorders.html
Joiner JT. Diving physiology. In NOAA Diving Manual (ed. Joiner JT) (Dest Publishing Co., 2001
Kadriyan H, Wardoyo EH, Noviyani NMR, Incidence of Diving-Related Illness in Lombok: The Need of Comprehensive Tourism Medical Care? Proceeding Tropical Tourism Outlook Conference: Balancing Development and Sustainability in Tourism Destinations. Lombok, 29-31 July 2015.
Kennedy-Little D; Sharman T. 2021. Pulmonary Barotrauma. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan- Akses 5 Februari 2022. Laman: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK559293/
Kirkland PJ, Mathew D, Modi P, et al. Nitrogen Narcosis In Diving. [Updated 2022 Aug 10]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470304/
Lee YI, Ye BJ. Underwater and Hyperbaric Medicine as a Branch of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2013; 25(1): 39. DOI: 10.1186/2052-4374-25-39
McCall C. 2021. 7 Things You Should Never Do Immediately After Diving. Akses 5 Februari 2022. Laman: https://blog.padi.com/7-things-you-should-never-do-immediately-after-diving/
McKnight CL; Burns B.2021. Pneumothorax. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan- Akses 5 Februari 2022. Laman: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441885/
NOAA. Chapter 2: Physics of Diving. Akses 5 Februari 2022. Laman: https://www.ehs.ucsb.edu/files/docs/ds/physics.pdf
NOAA. Chapter 3: Diving Physiology. Akses 5 Februari 2022. Laman: https://www.ehs.ucsb.edu/files/docs/ds/physio.pdf
Nord DA, Raczniak GA, Chimiak JM. Chapter 3: Environmental Hazards & Other Noninfectious Health Risks. Scuba Diving: Decompression Illness & Other Dive-Related Injuries. Akses 5 Februari 2022. Laman: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2020/noninfectious-health-risks/scuba-diving-decompression-illness-and-other-dive-related-injuries
Pulley SA. 2019. Decompression Sickness. Medscape. Available at: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/769717-overview#a4 accessed February 2nd 2022
Rozycki SW, Brown MJ, Camacho M. Inner ear barotrauma in divers: an evidence-based tool for evaluation and treatment. Diving Hyperb Med. 2018 Sep 30;48(3):186-193. doi: 10.28920/dhm48.3.186-193. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6205852/
Sawatzky D. Obese divers beware ‘saturated fat’. Divermag, May 23, 2013 [internet] https://divermag.com/obese-diversc383baab7bef8067e8c9786a45d8006c492489841a98fe37723e304bb1ddd030c2c383baab7bef8067e8c9786a45d8006c492489841a98fe37723e304bb1ddd030a0beware-c383baab7bef8067e8c9786a45d8006c492489841a98/ Accessed Nov 1st, 2022
Texas A&M University. Diving Safety Manual Texas A&M University at Galveston 2019-2020. https://www.tamug.edu/diveprogram/No%20Show/Diving_Safety_Manual.pdf
US Navy, 2016. US Navy Diving Manual. Rev7. COMMANDER, NAVAL SEA SYSTEMS COMMAND
Wardoyo EH & Tarigan DRM. Acute Dysbaric disorders: A case series in the Hyperbaric center in Lombok 2016-2020. 2nd Global Health and Innovation in conjunction with 6th ORL Head and Neck Oncology Conference (ORLHN 2021). Advances in Health Sciences Research, volume 46. Feb 2022. DOI: 10.2991/ahsr.k.220206.054




How to Cite

Wardoyo, E. H. (2023). Dive profile of traditional divers in Lombok Indonesia,risks for acute dysbaric disorder?. Jurnal Kedokteran, 12(1), 1291–1296. https://doi.org/10.29303/jku.v12i1.882